KEY BOX Positive impacts are in PURPLE Negative impacts are in ORANGE
The Colonial Era ( 1620-1763)
May 14, 1607- Starvation and disease is prominent in Jamestown. Chief Powhatan captures John Smith. He is saved by Pocahontas.
1675 - 1676 - King Philip’s War: The chief of the Wampanoags named Metacom, was also known to the colonists as King Philip, united many tribes in southern New England against the English settlers. The colonial forces managed to kill King Philip and ended the Native American resistance in New England.
1689 - 1697- King William’s War: English launched an expedition to capture Quebec but failed because the Native Americans sided to assist the French and burned down the English frontier settlements.
The Revolutionary Era ( 1763-1790)
1754-1763- French-Indian War was a result of the colonial expansion. As the English settlers moved into Ohio Valley, the French tried to stop them to protect their fur trade. The Native Americans choose the French side and fought against the colonists, which were on the British side.
1763- Pontiac’s Rebellion: Ottawa chief, Pontiac attacked colonists outposts in the Ohio Valley.
1763- The Proclamation of 1763 prohibits English settlements in the Appalachians in order to mediate tensions between the Native Americans and the Colonies.
1764- The Paxton Boys: A group of angry colonists attacked the peaceful tribe of Susquehannock in response to the Pontiac Rebellion.
The Era of the New Republic ( 1790-1824)
1790’s - British was supplying Native Americans (Shawnee, Wyandot, and other Native American people) with weaponry, and the U.S. Army located in NW Ohio attacked NA at the Battle of Fallen Timbers.
1795- Treaty of Greenville:U.S. received the Ohio Territory and gained settlement.
1804- Lewis and Clark expedition: The LA Purchase posed an important expansion in 1804. Lewis and Clark traveled through the Rocky Mts., reached the Oregon Territory coast on the Pacific Ocean and the expedition improved relations with the NA tribes.
1811- Battle of Tippecanoe: General Harrison destroyed the Shawnee territories, that were united by Tecumseh and Prophet, which put an end to Tecumseh’s failed attempt to form an Indian Confederacy.
1812-War of 1812: The war allowed the open way for William Henry Harrison to invade Canada and defeat the British and NA forces.
The Jacksonian Era (1824-1850)
1830- Indian Removal Act was passed by Jackson in 1830. The Cherokees lived in Georgia and assimilated as much as possible to the white population. However, when gold was found in Georgia, the Indians were ordered to move to Oklahoma.
1831- Cherokee Nation v. Georgia: In this supreme court case, John Marshall sided with the Cherokees in his decision. However, Jackson overruled his decision.
1834- The Indian Non-Intercourse Act: The Congress created the new Indian Territory in the west for the Indians who have been removed.
1835- The Seminole War: Thousands of U.S. troops were sent to force the Seminole Indians in the Indian Territory. It cost the U.S. more than the entire budget for the Indian Removal War.
1838-1839-Trail of Tears:After the Indian Removal Act was passed, the Cherokee were escorted out of Georgia by the U.S. Army. They had to walk towards Oklahoma. many of them died of sickness and starvation.
The Civil War Era ( 1850-1877)
1864- Sand Creek Massacre:This massacre is when Union troops killed several hundred Indian women and children in Sand Creek, Colorado.
The Gilded Age ( 1870-1896)
1870- In 1870 the Fifteenth Amendment was ratified and the the Indians now had the right to vote.
1871- Indian Appropriation War was passed in 1871. It stated that no Indian tribe would be recognized as an independent nation with which the federal gov't could make treaties.
1872- The Mining Act of 1872 excluded Native Alaskans from claiming their land. They were not accepted as citizens.
1875- In 1875, the Second Sioux War begins after the Sioux tribes refuse to sell land North of the Platte to the government.
1877- In 1877 the Nez Perce War took place. This was a response to the deaths committed by the Nez Perce. To avoid war they fled toward Canada, but they were eventually caught and sent back to the Indian Land.
1877 - Buffalo became extinct and the Indians had to survive on the help of the Government.
1878 - The Hampton Institute in Virginia was founded in 1868 to educate freedmen after the Civil War, and beginning admitting Native Americans.
1879 - The U.S. Congress adopted the idea that the right reforms could make Native Americans behave more like European American citizens, and established Indian schools for this purpose. One of the first schools was the Carlisle Indian School, founded in Pennsylvania in 1879. Its founder, Captain Richard Henry Pratt, made the goal of his school to "kill the Indian and save the man."
1880- In 1880, Congress passed the Civilization Regulations. These were a series of regulations which outlawed religious and traditional practices of the Indians.
1881- In 1881 the Spokane Reservation was established.
1881 - Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor informed readers of the poor treatment Indians had received at the hands of the United States government.
1882- The Congressional Act passed in 1882 provided funds for Indian children to go to school.
Dec. 15, 1882- The Indian Rights Association was created in order to protect the rights of the Native Americans. This association was founded by whites who believed in the rights of the Indians.
1887- The Dawes Act:The U.S. government created an act to help and protect the Indians. The President had to give 160 acres of land to each tribe. After 25 years this land would become their property and they would become citizens of the U.S.
1890- Battle of Wounded Knee: Hundreds of Native Americans died when the army attempted to end the Ghost Dance Movement.
1890- Ghost Dance Movement: This is a Native American movement that called for a return to traditional ways of life and challenged white dominance in society.
1898 - Native Americans from Indian Territory were recruited by Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders and saw action in Cuba in the Spanish-American War.
Progressive/Industrial Era ( 1896-1917)
1703- The Equal Educational Opportunities helped provide educational enrichment for Mexican, Asian, and Native Americans.
World War I (1917-1918)
1917-1918- It is estimated that more than 12,000 American Indians served in the United States military in World War I. Approximately 600 Oklahoma Indians, mostly Choctaw and Cherokee, were assigned to the 142nd Infantry of the 36th Texas-Oklahoma National Guard Division. The 142nd saw action in France and its soldiers were widely recognized for their contributions in battle. Four men from this unit were awarded the Croix de Guerre, while others received the Church War Cross for gallantry.
1917-1918-Navajo Code Talkers: These talkers were the key success to America because the Navajo Marines who created a secret code that made it possible for the United States to defeat the Japanese in World War II and end the war. No else could understand the complexity of the Navajo language, specifically the Germans or the Japanese.
Interwar Era (1918-1941)
1933 - John Collier, an advocate of Native American rights, was appointed commissioner for the Bureau of Indian Affairs. He established conversation and CCC projects on reservations and gained NA involvement in the WPA and other New Deal programs.
1934- Indian Reorganization Act: This act repealed the Dawes Act and returned all the claimed land back to the tribes and the American government supported the preservation of the Native American culture.
World War II (1941-1945)
1941-1945- More than 40,000 Indian people left their reservations to work in ordnance depots, factories, and other war industries. American Indians also invested more than $50 million in war bonds, and contributed generously to the Red Cross and the Army and Navy Relief societies. There were approximately 25, 000 Native Americans served in the military.
Cold War (1945- 1991)
1968- Native participation in the Poor People’s Campaign of 1968 in Washington, D.C. The campaign called to demand that President Lyndon Johnson and Congress help the poor get jobs, health care and decent homes.
Conservatism( 1968- 1991)
1980s-90s- More than 42,000 Native Americans, more than 90 percent of them volunteers, fought in Vietnam. Native American contributions in United States military combat continued in the 1980s and 1990s as they saw duty in Grenada, Panama, Somalia, and the Persian Gulf.